He was employed at Caltech's Division of Geological & Planetary Sciences at the time of writing the first edition.
Geology is the study of the composition and physical properties of rocks, minerals, gems and other related earth materials, including diamonds and crystals.
Scientists gain an understanding of the Earth's history by studying its composition.
One rare form has atoms that are 14 times as heavy as hydrogen atoms: carbon-14, or C ratio gets smaller.
So, we have a “clock” which starts ticking the moment something dies.
People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Christians, by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously.
Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering—the reason Jesus came into the world (See Six Days? He said, This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago.
The technique of comparing the abundance ratio of a radioactive isotope to a reference isotope to determine the age of a material is called radioactive dating.
Many isotopes have been studied, probing a wide range of time scales.
Carbon has unique properties that are essential for life on Earth.