Erosion could also take a mineral or fossil out of position and place it in another layer, thus causing humans to incorrectly assume an older or different age.
Each layer, or stratum, may be distinguished by its physical characteristics: color, texture, and structure.
Similarly, materials of human origin are also deposited onto the earth’s surface.
Cross-dating can indirectly establish a date for artifacts and sites.
Knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts, and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming?
If the layers you're examining are very small, it can be hard to determine for sure which occurred first.
In terms of paleontology, if an earthquake occurs and moves a fossil to another layer of the earth, one would think that fossil is older or younger than it is. By burying our dead, we impose them into geologic layers that we, ourselves, did not actually live in.
The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that the intrusions are younger than the rock they cut.
Natural materials such as rocks, soil, and traces of plants and animals settle on the earth’s surface and over time can accumulate in layers.
The materials deposited first are the oldest and are always found at the bottom of a given stratigraphic section.
The most recently deposited materials are the youngest and are always at the top. It always applies except when some type of disturbance has occurred.
For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation.” For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, by which the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water.